Here's a perennial vine with a woody stem. Edit: Trumpet vine seems to be the consensus.
This is what the "baby zombie hands" turned into. It's about 2-3' tall. Any guesses?
Does this look like a type of sedum to you? Edit: yes! Russian Stonecrop!
This popped up mixed in with some vinca vine. It's about 12" tall. Edit: Yay, Foamflower!
This last one might be a weed, I'm not really sure. Does it do anything?
Thanks to everyone for taking a look!